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Fake News, Misleading News, Biased News: Terms and Definitions

Terms

FOR MORE TERMS, see Stony Brook University. Digital Resources Center Glossary: The Language of News Literacy 

Advertising: the act or practice of calling public attention to one's product, service, need, etc. 

Bias:  a particular tendency, trend, inclination, feeling, or opinion, especially one that is preconceived or unreasoned: unreasonably hostile feelings or opinions about a social group; prejudice:  Statistics.  A systematic as opposed to a random distortion of a statistic as a result of sampling procedure.

Clickbait:  Internet content whose main purpose is to encourage users to follow a link to a web page, esp. where that web page is considered to be of low quality or value.

Confirmation Bias: The tendency to Interpret information that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses

Disinformation:  false information, as about a country's military strength or plans, publicly announced or planted in the news media, especially of other countries.

Fact:   something that actually exists; reality; truth:  something known to exist or to have happened:  a truth known by actual experience orobservation; something known to be true

Fake News: Fake news websites (also referred to online as hoax news), deliberately publish hoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation to drive web traffic inflamed by social media.These sites are distinguished from news satire, as they mislead and profit from readers' gullibility.  [From Wikipedia]

Hoax:  something intended to deceive or defraud

Information: 1. knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstance; news: 2 knowledge gained through study, communication, research, instruction, etc.; factual data

Knowledge:  the fact or state of knowing; the perception of fact or truth; clear and certain mental apprehension. the body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time.

Misinformation: false or inaccurate information, especially that which is deliberately intended to deceive.

Objectivity: not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased: impartiality, absence/lack of bias, absence/lack of prejudice, fairness, fair-mindedness, neutrality, evenhandedness, justice, open-mindedness, disinterest, detachment, dispassion, neutrality. 
Journalistic objectivity can refer to fairness, disinterestedness, factuality, and nonpartisanship

Parody: any humorous, satirical, or burlesque imitation, as of a person, event, etc. 

Point of View: a specified or stated manner of consideration or appraisal; standpoint: an opinion, attitude, or judgment

Post-truth: an adjective defined as 'relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief.

Prank:  a trick of an amusing, playful, or sometimes malicious nature.

Propaganda: information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.:  The deliberate spreading of such information, rumors, etc: To build support for an ideology or leader and demonizing the opposition. 

Publicity:  information, articles, or advertisements issued to secure public notice or attention. 

Reliability: to be relied on or depended on, as for accuracy, honesty, or achievement

Satire:   the use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or the like, inexposing, denouncing, or deriding vice, folly, etc.

True:  the true or actual state of a matter: conformity with fact or reality; verity: a verified or indisputable fact, proposition, principle, or the like: an obvious or accepted fact; truism; platitude.

 

Definitions from Dictionary.com, Oxford Dictionaries, Wikipedia