Reid, Alastair. Think 'sheep' before you share to avoid getting tricked by online misinformation. FirstDraft. December 9, 2019
Good online information? Or misinformation!? Check the Source, History, Evidence, Emotion, Pictures
First Draft. Verification: All Resources (a list of resources dealing with photo manipulation, reverse image searches, visual verification clues- and more)
AllSides.com “Unlike regular news services, AllSides exposes bias and provides multiple angles on the same story so you can quickly get the full picture, not just one slant.” More about AllSides’ bias ratings http://www.allsides.com/bias/about-bias (You can decide if you agree with their bias ratings!)
AP FACTCHECK including Not Real News: A Look at What Didn't Happen This Week.
Caulfield, Mike (2017, April 4) How "News Literacy" Gets Web Misinformation Wrong. Provides some examples on how to think through the process of fact-checking.
Caulfield, Mike. (2019, June 19). SIFT: Evaluate information in a digital world
Codart, Charlotte. (2019, June 21). The Most Comprehensive TweetDeck Research Guide In Existence (Probably). Bellingcat. (Learn how to use TweetDeck to research on-going events).
CUNY Graduate School of Journalism. Fact Checking, Verification & Fake News
Dahmen, Nicole and Don Heider. (2017, February 5) Want to resist the post-truth age? Learn to analyze photos like an expert would.
Fact-Checking Research. American Press Institute
FIrst Draft. Essential Guides: Tools and Tips for Better Online Journalism.
Inskeep, Steve. (2016, December 11). A finder's guide To facts. NPR.org
The International Fact Checking Network IFCN) The Poynter Institute
Journalist’s Resource. Tip Sheets Some tips sheets
Media Bias Fact Check [ See methodology used to decide on bias for the news sites analyzed on this site: Are there any problems with the criteria? Are there additional questions you might ask about the sites that are rated?]
On the Media Presents Breaking News Consumers Handbook. See this excellent site on breaking news, fake news, health news, Islamophobia, migration, poverty in America, etc.
Politico. Is It True? A Fake News Database. Put in a link and let Politico help evaluate if the site is "information" or "disinformation."
Politifact Fact-checking politics
Ravenscroft, E. (2016, November). B. S. detector lets you know when you are reading a fake news source. [Blog post.]. [This LifeHacker blog post describes a Chrome extension that warns you when you are on a fake news site. ( List of sites used by this extension.) See also Fake news detector helps solve Facebook's problem, gets blocked ]
Reilley, Mike. (2019, March 25). Fact-checking resources. Journalist's Toolbox.
Rosenstiel, T. (2013, October 22). Six questions that will tell you what media to trust. American Press Institute.
Schulten, K. (2015, October 2). Skills and strategies: Fake news vs real news: Determining the reliability of sources. New York Times.
Snopes' Field Guide to Fake News Sites and Hoax Purveyors: Snopes.com's updated guide to the internet's clickbaiting, news-faking, social media exploiting dark side. 2016.
Verification Handbook Designed for journalists and aid responders, this recent edition (2020) provides step-by-step guidelines for using user-generated content (UGC) during emergencies. Includes case studies on verification fundamentals, verifying images, verification tools, etc. Read online or download for free in various file formats. Also available for purchase.
Dr. Zimdars, a professor of Communication at Merrimack College put up a list of sites that she considers problematic. Does she display a liberal bias? You can decide if that means she is incorrect in her assessments of news sources. See Zimdars, M. (2016, November 18). .My ‘fake news list’ went viral. But made-up stories are only part of the problem. The Washington Post. This Google Doc lists sites vetted by Dr. Zimdars, a group of librarians, and others (as of February 2017).
Bellingcat, the Home of Online investigations. Learn techniques to verify video content, photos, etc.
Crider, M. (2017, October 20). How to spot fake stock photos (and attribute the right person). How-To Greek
Douglas, N. (2017, August 8). Fact-check that viral image in two clicks. LifeHacker
Eveleth, R. (2012, December 13).How fake images change our memory and behaviour. BBC.
Farid, H. (n.d.) Digital doctoring: Can we trust photographs?
Farid, H. (2008, June 2). Digital forensics: 5 ways to spot a fake photo. Scientific American
First Draft Learn how to use free tools to track, source, and verify information you find online. Learn to use internet plugins and other tools to trace a video or photo's provenance, test for manipulation, etc. Go to https://firstdraftnews.org/en/education/learn/ to register for (free) online courses and resources. Faculty can integrate parts of the course into their own lesson plans.
Rath, R. (2014, August 15). How to spot a fake photo on Twitter.
Silverman, Craig. (2012, May 24). Three ways to spot if an image has been manipulated. Poynter Institute.
Some of the guides below include information on satirical sites. Even though satire is not purposefully "fake", some people can't distinguish between satire and hard news.
Adelphi University. Fake News and Alternative Fact: A Guide to News Literacy: Critical Thinking
DuQuesne University. Evaluating Information found in social media
FIU Libraries. After the election: Discussion, dialogue, + discourse. Evaluating election results and information sources.
Indiana University East. Fake News Help! My news is fake! How to fact-check like pro.
John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Fact Checking, Verification & Fake News
Kent State University. List of Satirical News Sites (including international satirical news sites). [Lists sites that are intentionally satirical rather than “hard news” sites.]
Northern Essex Community College FAKE NEWS vs. REAL NEWS: How to Determine the Reliability of Sources
Rivier University. Regina Library/ERC. Evaluating online information
Southern Connecticut State University. Butler Library. Critical thinking: Conspiracy theories, fake news, hoaxes, urban legends, and moral panics.
State Libraries of Louisiana Frauds and Fakes on the Internet [Includes parody sites such as “The Onion” and the “Borowitz Report.” Some people mistake parody for hard news]
ALA Public Programs Office Fake News Library Roundup "As librarians everywhere will attest, fake news is not new; fabricated stories have been presented as truth for centuries. But take a divided electorate and add a social media landscape where misinformation is shared with a click, and interest in the topic has soared..." List of articles, library resources about fake news
Wikipedia... helpful, but not perfect!
A research article about Wikipedia and disinformation:
Benson, B. (2016, September 1). Cognitive bias cheat sheet. [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://betterhumans.coach.me/cognitive-bias-cheat-sheet-55a472476b18#.bshcuupif Benson organized 175 cognitive biases described in Wikipedia articles by categorizing and giving an overview explanation for types of cognitive biases. What is a cognitive bias? "A cognitive bias refers to the systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, whereby inferences about other people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion. Individuals create their own "subjective social reality" from their perception of the input." Wikipedia
Berger, Warren. (2017, February 22). Want to be a better critical thinker? Here’s how to spot false narratives and “weaponized lies.” [Blog post]
Popova, Maria. The Baloney Detection Kit: Carl Sagan’s rules for bullshit-busting and critical thinking. [Blog post].
CloneZone: Users can manipulate and edit website text, upload their own visual content, create a URL and share the cloned page. On their "get started" page as examples of pages to clone: Fox News; ArtNews. Scroll down to see some cloned pages that have been circulated.