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Fake News, Misleading News, Biased News: Home


January 2021: Huguet, Alice, Garrett Baker, Laura S. Hamilton, and John F. Pane, Media Literacy Standards to Counter Truth Decay. RAND Corporation

January 2021:  Southern Connecticut State University. Butler Library. Critical thinking: Conspiracy theories, fake news, hoaxes, urban legends, and moral panics.

October 2020:: Wineburg, S., Breakstone, J., Ziv, N, & Smith, M. (2020, October 21). Educating for misunderstanding: How approaches to teaching digital literacy make students susceptible to scammers, rogues, bad actors, and hate mongers. Working paper A-21322. Stanford History Education Group. 

August 2020:  Wardle, Claire & Garcia, Laura. Protection from deception:  Introduction an SMS course to prepare for US election misinformation.  First Draft [A free two-week course]

May 2020Kaplan, Juliana. (2020, May 17). Inside the surreal Twitter world of Steak-umm, a frozen-meat company that's become an unlikely crusader against coronavirus conspiracies — and a darling of the scientists looking for the cure. Business Insider

May 2020.         Szakács, Judit. The business of disinformation. EUROZINE.  (April 24, 2020) ["Disinformation is not always ideologically motivated"]

February 2020. Rowland, Darrel. What you need to know about the language of disinformation ahead of the 2020 election cycle.  USA Today.  [A glossary of terms such as bots, sockpuppets, narrative laundering] (February 24, 2020).

February 2020: Benjakob, O. On Wikipedia fight is raging over coronavirus disinformation: A team of medicine enthusiasts has been scrambling to keep disinformation from spreading on the free encyclopedia. WIRED. (February 9, 2020).

January 2020: Ordway, Denise-Marie. Rated false: Here’s the most interesting new research on fake news and fact-checking.  January 10, 2020 


LogicCheck: an educational web site that uses the news of the day to illustrate the steps and skills required to become a thoughtful consumer of the news." Jonathan Haber has set up to check "not only facts, but the arguments into which facts fit." 

 MediaWell:  An initiative of the Social Science Research Council "to make academic research on dis- and misinformation available to a wider audience."

Articles about fake news

Bilton, Ricardo (2017, February 2). Reddit’s /r/worldnews community used a series of nudges to push users to fact-check suspicious news [An approach to checking for fake news: A combination of fact-checking, rating news sources - using algorithms and users. Full report of this study]


Dewey, C. (2016, November 17).  Facebook face-news writer: 'I think Donald Trump is in the White House because of me.'  The Washington Post. [One of many articles about Paul Horner, a comedian who makes money by posting fake news on Facebook. Where does the money come from?? Ads!]


Domonoske, C. (2016, November 23). Students have a dismaying inability to tell fake news from real, study finds.    


Downes, Stephen. (2016, November 21). Post truth and fake news [Blog post]. [Stephen Downes is an Canadian educator.In 1995 he put out a website on logical fallacies that is archived in various places on the Web.  See  (I hope he is being facetious about taking down satirical sites like The Onion.)  ]


​Gershon, L. (2016, November 16).  Ninteenth-century clickbait.  JSTOR Daily.   [Fake and/or misleading information is not necessarily a new phenomenon.]

Journalists Resource Center.  Fake news and the spread of mis-information [Compiled by JRC writer: Denise-Marie Ordway ]
Kang, C. (2016, November 21).  Fake news onslaught targets pizzeria as nest of child-trafficking. New York Times [Comet Ping Pong, Pizzagate]

Maheshwair, S. (2016, November  11).  How fake news goes viral:  A case study.  New York Times.


McCoy, T.  (2016, November 20).  For the 'new yellow journalists,' opportunity comes in clicks and bucks. The Washington Post[“LibertyWritersNews illustrates how websites can use Facebook to tap into a surging ideology, quickly go from nothing to influencing millions of people and make big profits in the process.”]


Sample, Ian. (2020, January 13). What are deepfakes - and how can you spot them?  The Guardian


Shane, S. (2017, January 18).  From headline to photograph, a fake news masterpiece. New York Times


Siddiqui, F., & Svrluga, S. (2016, December 4).  N.C. man told D. C. pollice he went to D.C. pizzeria with gun to investigate conspiracy theory.  The Washington Post. [Comet Ping Pong, Pizzagate]


Spector, Carrie. (2017, October 4).  Stanford scholars observe 'experts' to see how they evaluate the credibility of information online Stanford. Graduate School of Education.   "The fact checkers read laterally, meaning they would quickly scan a website in question but then open a series of additional browser tabs, seeking context and perspective from other sites."


Skwarecki, B. (2017, October 2). How to spot lies on social media after a mass shootingLifehacker. [Written after the mass shooting in Las Vegas, October 1, 2017).


Woolf, C. (2016, November 16). Kids in Macedonia made up and circulated many false news stories in the US election. PRI's The World. [Why did kids in Macedonia make up false news stories?  Money!  Where does the money come from? Ads!]


Other Interesting Articles


Fister, B. (2021, February 3).  Lizard people in the library. PIL Provocation Series, No. 1,  Project Information Literacy. 

Google adds "Fact-Check"

April 2017:   Google has added a "fact-check" label to large news stories. See


Breaking News: From On The Media

"In the immediate aftermath, news outlets will get it wrong."  

"Don't trust anonymous sources."  

"Compare multiple sources."

See Breaking News Consumer's Handbook and the Evaluating Sources tab for more

Let's Make Some Fake News!

Want some tips on creating fake news?  See...

Jacksfilms.  Fake News: Let’s fool the world! (YIAY #314)   YouTube (Comedy)