The concept "fake news" emerged as an issue since the 2016 US presidential election. Here are some resources to learn more about this issue and evaluate news sources.
From the Poynter Institute, the world-famous school for journalists located in St. Petersburg Florida: Funke, D., & Mantzarlis, A. (2018, December 18). What to expect from fact-checking in 2019
In the United Kingdom...."The phrase ....[fake news] will no longer appear in policy documents or official papers because it is “a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes,” officials said... SEE Murphy, M. (2018, October 23). Government bans phrase 'fake news'. The Telegraph.
Funke, D. (2018, November 12). WhatsApp awards $1 million for misinformation research. Poynter Institute.
Bilton, Ricardo (2017, February 2). Reddit’s /r/worldnews community used a series of nudges to push users to fact-check suspicious news [An approach to checking for fake news: A combination of fact-checking, rating news sources - using algorithms and users. Full report of this study]
Dewey, C. (2016, November 17). Facebook face-news writer: 'I think Donald Trump is in the White House because of me.' The Washington Post. [One of many articles about Paul Horner, a comedian who makes money by posting fake news on Facebook. Where does the money come from?? Ads!]
Domonoske, C. (2016, November 23). Students have a dismaying inability to tell fake news from real, study finds. NPR.org
Downes, Stephen. (2016, November 21). Post truth and fake news [Blog post]. [Stephen Downes is an Canadian educator.In 1995 he put out a website on logical fallacies that is archived in various places on the Web. See http://www.fallacies.ca/ (I hope he is being facetious about taking down satirical sites like The Onion.) ]
Drobnic Holan, A. (2016, December 13). Politifact lie of the year: Fake news. Politifact.
Gershon, L. (2016, November 16). Ninteenth-century clickbait. JSTOR Daily. [Fake and/or misleading information is not necessarily a new phenomenon.]
Maheshwair, S. (2016, November 11). How fake news goes viral: A case study. New York Times.
McCoy, T. (2016, November 20). For the 'new yellow journalists,' opportunity comes in clicks and bucks. The Washington Post. [“LibertyWritersNews illustrates how websites can use Facebook to tap into a surging ideology, quickly go from nothing to influencing millions of people and make big profits in the process.”]
Reader, R. (2016, November 18). How we got to post-truth. Fast Company. [A “long read” about the problem of fake news passed around during the 2016 presidential election.]
Shane, S. (2017, January 18). From headline to photograph, a fake news masterpiece. New York Times
Siddiqui, F., & Svrluga, S. (2016, December 4). N.C. man told D. C. pollice he went to D.C. pizzeria with gun to investigate conspiracy theory. The Washington Post. [Comet Ping Pong, Pizzagate]
Skwarecki, B. (2017, October 2). How to spot lies on social media after a mass shooting. Lifehacker. [Written after the mass shooting in Las Vegas, October 1, 2017).
Tiffany, K. (2016, November 16). In the war on fake news, school librarians have a huge role to play. The Verge
Wardle, C. (2016, November 18). 6 types of misinformation circulated this election season. Columbia Journalism Review.
Williamson, Vanessa and Norman Elsen. (2017, February 8). We were the victims of fake news. [These researchers from the Brookings Institute report of a website called Center for Global Strategic Monitoring, which has been using names of research experts on articles that they did not write. These authors remind readers to look for and notice typos, grammatical errors, lack of indentifiable contact information, etc.]
Woolf, C. (2016, November 16). Kids in Macedonia made up and circulated many false news stories in the US election. PRI's The World. [Why did kids in Macedonia make up false news stories? Money! Where does the money come from? Ads!]
Spector, Carrie. (2017, October 4). Stanford scholars observe 'experts' to see how they evaluate the credibility of information online. Stanford. Graduate School of Education. "The fact checkers read laterally, meaning they would quickly scan a website in question but then open a series of additional browser tabs, seeking context and perspective from other sites."