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Fake News, Misleading News, Biased News: Home


The concept "fake news" emerged as an issue since the 2016 US presidential election.  Here are some resources to learn more about this issue and evaluate news sources. 

APRIL  2, 2019:  International Fact-Checking Day. Sponsored by the Poyntor Institute.  


Navigating Misinformation: How to identify and verify what you see on the web Instructor: Claire Wardle, First Draft March 25 - April 21, 2019


In the United Kingdom...."The phrase ....[fake news] will no longer appear in policy documents or official papers because it is “a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes,” officials said... SEE  Murphy, M. (2018, October 23).  Government bans phrase 'fake news'The Telegraph. 

Articles about fake news

Bilton, Ricardo (2017, February 2). Reddit’s /r/worldnews community used a series of nudges to push users to fact-check suspicious news [An approach to checking for fake news: A combination of fact-checking, rating news sources - using algorithms and users. Full report of this study]


Dewey, C. (2016, November 17).  Facebook face-news writer: 'I think Donald Trump is in the White House because of me.'  The Washington Post. [One of many articles about Paul Horner, a comedian who makes money by posting fake news on Facebook. Where does the money come from?? Ads!]


Domonoske, C. (2016, November 23). Students have a dismaying inability to tell fake news from real, study finds.    


Downes, Stephen. (2016, November 21). Post truth and fake news [Blog post]. [Stephen Downes is an Canadian educator.In 1995 he put out a website on logical fallacies that is archived in various places on the Web.  See  (I hope he is being facetious about taking down satirical sites like The Onion.)  ]


Drobnic Holan, A. (2016, December 13).  Politifact lie of the year: Fake news.  Politifact. 


​Gershon, L. (2016, November 16).  Ninteenth-century clickbait.  JSTOR Daily.   [Fake and/or misleading information is not necessarily a new phenomenon.]

Journalists Resource Center.  Fake news and the spread of mis-information [Compiled by JRC writer: Denise-Marie Ordway ]
Kang, C. (2016, November 21).  Fake news onslaught targets pizzeria as nest of child-trafficking. New York Times [Comet Ping Pong, Pizzagate]

Maheshwair, S. (2016, November  11).  How fake news goes viral:  A case study.  New York Times.


McCoy, T.  (2016, November 20).  For the 'new yellow journalists,' opportunity comes in clicks and bucks. The Washington Post[“LibertyWritersNews illustrates how websites can use Facebook to tap into a surging ideology, quickly go from nothing to influencing millions of people and make big profits in the process.”]

Reader, R. (2016, November 18).  How we got to post-truth.  Fast Company.  [A “long read” about the problem of fake news passed around during the 2016 presidential election.]

Shane, S. (2017, January 18).  From headline to photograph, a fake news masterpiece. New York Times


Siddiqui, F., & Svrluga, S. (2016, December 4).  N.C. man told D. C. pollice he went to D.C. pizzeria with gun to investigate conspiracy theory.  The Washington Post. [Comet Ping Pong, Pizzagate]


Skwarecki, B. (2017, October 2). How to spot lies on social media after a mass shootingLifehacker. [Written after the mass shooting in Las Vegas, October 1, 2017).


Tiffany, K. (2016, November 16).  In the war on fake news, school librarians have a huge role to play. The Verge


Wardle, C. (2016, November 18).  6 types of misinformation circulated this election season.  Columbia Journalism Review


Williamson, Vanessa and Norman Elsen. (2017, February 8).  We were the victims of fake news. [These researchers from the Brookings Institute report of a website called Center for Global Strategic Monitoring, which has been using names of research experts on articles that they did not write. These authors remind readers to look for and notice typos, grammatical errors, lack of indentifiable contact information, etc.]


Woolf, C. (2016, November 16). Kids in Macedonia made up and circulated many false news stories in the US election. PRI's The World. [Why did kids in Macedonia make up false news stories?  Money!  Where does the money come from? Ads!]


Additional Readings

Spector, Carrie. (2017, October 4). Stanford scholars observe 'experts' to see how they evaluate the credibility of information online. Stanford. Graduate School of Education.   "The fact checkers read laterally, meaning they would quickly scan a website in question but then open a series of additional browser tabs, seeking context and perspective from other sites."

Google adds "Fact-Check"

April 2017:   Google has added a "fact-check" label to large news stories. See


Breaking News: From On The Media

"In the immediate aftermath, news outlets will get it wrong."  

"Don't trust anonymous sources."  

"Compare multiple sources."

See Breaking News Consumer's Handbook and the Evaluating Sources tab for more

Let's Make Some Fake News!

Want some tips on creating fake news?  See...

Jacksfilms.  Fake News: Let’s fool the world! (YIAY #314)   YouTube (Comedy)