Oral citations help establish credibility, context, and recency to the information you use in your speech. You should cite when either paraphrasing or directly quoting information from another source. See pg. 161 in your textbook, The Art of Public Speaking 12th ed., for more information and examples.
Kara Swisher, a contributing writer for The New York Times, noted in her Jan. 13th 2020 opinion piece titled "Facebook Loves to Pass the Buck" that Facebook executives aren't doing enough to control the spread of misinformation on their site.
In-text citations should be used in any written material, such as an essay. You should cite when either paraphrasing or directly quoting information from another source. An APA-style citation includes the author's name and the year in which the work was published, either in parenthesis, in-text, or both. Refer to the APA Style Manual for more information.
Gitlin (2001) has argued that critics sometimes overestimate the influence of the media on modern life.
Researchers argue that critics sometimes overestimate the influence of the media on modern life (Gitlin, 2001).
Reference list entries include four elements: author, date, title, and source. Use the APA Style Website for guidance on missing information.
Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of webpage. Publisher (if different from author). URL
Pew Research Center. (2013, March 14). Modern parenthood: Roles of moms and dads converge as they balance work and family. https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/03/14/modern-parenthood-roles-of-moms-and-dads-converge-as-they-balance-work-and-family/
Woodyatt, A. (2019, September 10). Daytime naps once or twice a week may be linked to a healthy heart, researchers say. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/09/10/health/nap-heart-health-wellness-intl-scli/index.html
Username. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. URL
Klusmanp. (2008, February 13). An engineer's guide to cats [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHXBL6bzAR4
Last name or username, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of the artwork [Format]. Title of the Website. URL
Gallup. (2012, December 50). In U.S., more cite obesity as most urgent health problem [Graphs]. https://news.gallup.com/poll/159083/cite-obesity-urgent-health-problem.aspx
Verch, M. (2019, January 23). Refined sugar and granulated sugar on white background [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/30478819@N08/46148146934
A personal interview is not considered recoverable data, so no reference is provided in the reference list. You may, however, cite the interview during your speech or within the text as personal communication.
(J. Smith, personal communication, August 15, 2009)
Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), page numbers. DOI or permalink
Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185