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SPC-1608 - Zimmerman

Oral Citations

Oral citations help establish credibility, context, and recency to the information you use in your speech. You should cite when either paraphrasing or directly quoting information from another source. See pg. 161 in your textbook, The Art of Public Speaking 12th ed., for more information and examples. 

What should an oral citation include?

  • AUTHOR(s) 
    • Say the author's full name (or name of the organization, company, etc.) and their credentials
    • Include the type of source - book, article, interview, etc. - as well as the title
  • DATE
    • If available, include the date the source was published


Kara Swisher, a contributing writer for The New York Times, noted in her Jan. 13th 2020 opinion piece titled "Facebook Loves to Pass the Buck" that Facebook executives aren't doing enough to control the spread of misinformation on their site. 

In-Text Citations

In-text citations should be used in any written material, such as an essay. You should cite when either paraphrasing or directly quoting information from another source. An APA-style citation includes the author's name and the year in which the work was published, either in parenthesis, in-text, or both. Refer to the APA Style Manual for more information.


Gitlin (2001) has argued that critics sometimes overestimate the influence of the media on modern life.


Researchers argue that critics sometimes overestimate the influence of the media on modern life (Gitlin, 2001).

"APA 7th Edition: The Basics of APA In-text Citations" by Scribbr on YouTube

Reference List


  • 1-inch margins with a common font such as 12-point Times New Roman or 11-point Calibri
  • The word References should be at the top of the page and centered
  • Entries should be listed in alphabetical order by the first author's last name (or title if no author) with hanging indentations 

Style Basics

Reference list entries include four elements: author, date, title, and source. Use the APA Style Website for guidance on missing information.

  • Author can be a person, group of people, or an organization. Use & for multiple authors. If there is no author, start the entry with the title.
  • Date refers to the date of publication and is most commonly the year or an exact date (year, month, and day). Use (n.d.) for no date.
  • Title can be either a work that stands alone (e.g. a book) or part of a greater whole (e.g. a journal article) and should always be in sentence case.
  • Source indicates where readers can retrieve the cited work and could be a publisher or the title of a greater whole (e.g. a journal article and the journal name). 




Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of webpage. Publisher (if different from author). URL

Pew Research Center. (2013, March 14). Modern parenthood: Roles of moms and dads converge as they balance work and family.

Woodyatt, A. (2019, September 10). Daytime naps once or twice a week may be linked to a healthy heart, researchers say. CNN.


Username. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. URL

Klusmanp. (2008, February 13). An engineer's guide to cats [Video]. YouTube.


Last name or username, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of the artwork [Format]. Title of the Website. URL

Gallup. (2012, December 50). In U.S., more cite obesity as most urgent health problem [Graphs].

Verch, M. (2019, January 23). Refined sugar and granulated sugar on white background [Photograph]. Flickr.


A personal interview is not considered recoverable data, so no reference is provided in the reference list. You may, however, cite the interview during your speech or within the text as personal communication.

(J. Smith, personal communication, August 15, 2009)


Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), page numbers. DOI or permalink

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217.